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Nano Silver

Nano Silver is a form of colloidal silver (also known as silver water), in which the smallest possible particles of silver are dissolved in water. This colloidal silver water kills pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and yeasts, protecting ourselves and our environment from unwanted invaders.

Indications for use

  • Acne
  • Canker sores
  • Allergies
  • Allergic skin rash
  • Adrenal fatigue
  • Cystitis (chronic)
  • Burns
  • Candida
  • Caries
  • Food preservation
  • Preservation of flowers
  • Coronaviruses
  • Diarrhoea
  • Ebola
  • Eczema
  • Influenza
  • Herpes zoster
  • Herpes
  • Skin complaints
  • HPV virus
  • Weak immune system
  • Sore throat
  • Cold sores
  • Leaky gut syndrome
  • ENT complaints
  • Respiratory diseases
  • Lyme disease
  • Stomach ulcer
  • Bad breath
  • MRSA
  • Hives
  • Constipation
  • Eye inflammation
  • Otitis
  • Disinfection
  • Pfeiffer syndrome
  • Psoriasis
  • Rhinitis
  • Rotavirus
  • Sars
  • Gum problems
  • Perspiration odour
  • Chickenpox
  • Warts
  • Cold
  • Reduced resistance
  • Sweaty feet

From 1900, colloidal silver was frequently used for a wide range of complaints, from skin irritation to meningitis! Doctors and pharmacists prescribed colloidal silver for eye and ear infections, allergies, viral infections, conjunctivitis, bladder infections, stomach ulcers, appendicitis, stomach flu, diarrhea and constipation, candida, blood poisoning, pleural inflammation, burns, bronchitis, eczema, shingles, psoriasis, acne, rubella and ringworm, flu, colds, sore throat, bronchitis, whooping cough, hepatitis, herpes, legionella, lymph node inflammation, malaria, multiple sclerosis,  salmonella, fungal infections, thrush, Lyme disease, tuberculosis, gum disease and depression. A panacea!

Many researchers of the time showed that silver and also mercury were highly effective biocides. The work of Henry Crookes, from 1910, showed that B. coli communis was killed by colloidal mercury in 2 minutes and by colloidal silver in 6 minutes. The statement: “there is no known pathogen that is not killed in a laboratory within 6 minutes with colloidal silver” comes from this time, following the many test results.

The Lancet published the work of Simpson and Hewlett in 1914, which showed that with a colloidal silver solution of 500 ppm they could kill the bacterium Typhoid bacillus in 15 minutes, but also in just two hours with only 5 ppm! This was a breakthrough because 5ppm was completely safe for human use. Silver water gained unprecedented popularity.


In Europe and America, colloidal silver was so popular that no less than 94 different silver preparations were registered as official medicines in a short time.

However, in 1938 this registration was revoked. In the same year came the introduction of penicillin, for which patent protection could be claimed.  A patent can make the pharmaceutical industry a lot of money. The publications on colloidal silver were drastically reduced and the studies on silver have also become much more difficult to find.

In 1941, the commercial production of penicillin, helped by pressure from the war situation, got off to a good start and thus a lucrative business arose that is still the most lucrative trade worldwide! In 1995, 13,550 infections of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus occurred in hospitals in New York alone, which cost no less than 435 million dollars to treat it! A gem for the pharmaceutical industry.

Silver water back in the spotlight

From 1960/1970 there was a revival of colloidal silver. In 1966, the journal “Surgical Forum” published a very remarkable report by Brentano, which showed that colloidal and ionic silver solutions as well as combinations of the two had very positive effects in treating burns. Many agents were tested and it turned out that silver was the most effective, especially in treating the bacterium pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium that is notorious as a hospital bacterium in the wound infection of burns.

Researchers and medical professionals made new discoveries, rediscoveries, wrote books, and improved the production process of colloidal silver. In many laboratories, glass culture dishes for bacteria were sterilized by placing a silver plate in them. Since that time, silver has also been used in water treatment plants and in water tanks in aviation and aerospace. NASA came to the same conclusion: nano silver is safe and extremely effective as a biocide. Since then, they have been using it to purify their drinking water. The Swiss company Katadyn has specialized for decades in water purification and water storage both for the food industry and for private use in, for example, hotels in the tropics.

The medical application of silver was largely surpressed by regular antibiotics after 1938

From that moment on, there was also a lively market of home, garden and kitchen appliances to make colloidal silver at home. Although people benefited from this, the quality was and is many times inferior and not suitable for long-term, internal use. Cases of argyria were again observed in people who drank about a litre of homemade silver a day for years on end, because they felt good about it. Argyria is a gray/blue discoloration of the skin because large silver particles of silver salts “stick” to the tissue and cause discoloration there. Fortunately, with high-quality products, that is a thing of the past.

Since about 1995, silver has also been used in the textile and footwear industry as a bactericidal and anti-odour agent. In 2005, silver was processed as a fiber in underwear by the British army in Iraq to prevent bacterial infections. Colloidal silver has been used since 1954 to keep swimming pools sterile, prevent algae growth and purify drinking water.

Usage advice

When purchasing silver, pay attention to:

  • Particle size, this should be less than 10nm.
  • The strength (ppm),which should be between 10 and 20ppm.
  • Zeta potential, which should be at least 40 mv.
  • Packaging material, preferably dark violet glass.
  • It should be virtually odourless, colourless, and tasteless.
  • Produced with pure water.
  • Shape of the particles, if known, should preferably be round/circular

Nano Silver is available in already diluted form and can be taken directly from the bottle, preferably on an empty stomach. Hold in the mouth for about 1 minute before swallowing. This promotes direct absorption from the oral mucosa into the bloodstream. It can also be applied directly to the skin, mucous membranes, open wounds, fungal nails or in the ear or eye.

Herxheimer reaction

Due to the biocide and antiseptic action of silver, the body suddenly has to process more waste products than normal, which can cause detoxification symptoms, also known as the Herxheimer reaction. Think of headaches, nausea, sweating, itchy skin or light rashes and rumbling in the intestine. This can easily be prevented by slowly building up the dosage or can be stopped by reducing the dosage or temporarily stopping the intake in case of symptoms. Supplements such as psyllium fibres and chlorella or wheatgrass can also help absorb the released waste products (killed pathogens) and excrete them through the stool. Selenium and NAC ensure proper excretion of silver after it has done its job.

Nano silver can be used for a short or long term

Due to the biocide and antiseptic action of silver, the body suddenly has to process more waste products than normal, which can cause detoxification symptoms, also known as the Herxheimer reaction. Think of headaches, nausea, sweating, itchy skin or light rashes and rumbling in the intestine. This can easily be prevented by slowly building up the dosage or can be stopped by reducing the dosage or temporarily stopping the intake in case of symptoms. Supplements such as psyllium fibres and chlorella or wheatgrass can also help absorb the released waste products (killed pathogens) and excrete them through the stool. Selenium and NAC ensure proper excretion of silver after it has done its job.

How do I take it based on a silver product with the above characteristics?

Dosage externally:

  • In spray bottle: spray on the affected area as needed.
  • In pipette bottle: apply 1 to 2 drops with pipette as needed.
  • As a compress: soak a cotton ball, gauze or a cotton cloth with silver and apply to the affected area.

For maintenance:  5 ml / 1 teaspoon per day
For gum problems: 2 to 3 times a day a tablespoon immediately after meals, rinse and swallow or spray several times.

5 ml/ 1 teaspoon to 30 ml/ 3 tablespoons per day. Maximum 90 ml/ 9 tablespoons per day.

Build up gradually when first using. Depending on the diversity of complaints and constitution type of the person, start with 5 or 10 ml and build up in steps from 5 or 10 ml per day to 30 or 60 ml.

The average effective dosage is 30 ml per day, but this can vary from individual to individual, for example 60ml or sometimes just 20ml per day. When detoxification reactions occur during the use of silver, reduce the dose and later increase it again until the desired effect is achieved. In the absence of the desired effect, increase the dose to 90 ml per day. We recommend using this dose for up to 14 consecutive days. An increase in the 30 ml dose may be desirable in cases of, for example, acute inflammation, prolonged constipation, severe flu or cold sores.

0 to 2 years:        a few drops up to 5 ml/1 teaspoon per day. Maximum 1 tablespoon per day.

2 to 6 years:        5 ml/1 teaspoon to 10 ml/1 tablespoon per day. Maximum 2 tablespoons per day.

6 to 12 years:      10 ml/ 1 tablespoon to 20 ml/ 2 tablespoons per day. Maximum 3 tablespoons per day.

Maximum 10 ml per day to prevent detoxification symptoms.
For thrush or cracked nipples: 2 sprays 3 times a day.

Also for animals, nano silver is very useful for:
infections, wounds, cystitis, abscesses, kennel cough, sneezing disease, prevention parasites, scabies and other skin conditions.

Dosage for animals 2 x daily, depending on condition: 0.5-1 teaspoon per 10 kilograms of body weight into the throat of the animal or mix with food or drinking water.

Notes: due to the fast absorption, people can experience a reaction quickly.

For example, an eye infection, skin irritation, painful gums or a sore throat can often be resolved within a day, sometimes within 10 minutes. However, detoxification symptoms can also occur quickly. Although they are rare, it is good to be aware of symptoms such as headaches, nausea, diarrhea, irritated skin and excessive sweating. Therefore, always build up the dose gently, just to be sure, especially when someone has weak health or is very sensitive.

In chronic complaints, for which a litre bottle of silver is taken as a detox cure and “boost” for the immune system, there is almost always some disturbance of intestinal flora. We therefore recommend using a probiotic after the silver cure to restore the intestinal flora, preferably in combination with L-glutamine, zinc, a multi-mineral supplement and good fatty acids.

Nano silver is generally translucent, odourless and tasteless. Sometimes very subtle colour, smell and taste changes can occur.


We are not aware of any interactions of Nano Silver with other nutrients or medications. In practice, it has been used alongside other supplementation and/or medication for decades without negative side effects.

Note: silver salts can cause side effects. See “safe use of silver”.
Selenium, NAC and vitamin E contribute to the removal and excretion of (excess) silver.

Why Nano Silver?

Nano Silver is effective and completely safe.

Silver comes in different forms. The best known is bulk silver, as in jewelry and cutlery. For medicinal applications, silver salts, silver proteins, elemental or metallic silver and ionic silver are used. Silver salts and silver proteins were mainly used in the early 1900s, but are now seen as inferior products. They are large, sensitive to oxidation and much less potent in their biocidal action. They can also cause argyria (grey/blue discoloration of the skin). All forms of silver release ions, which are highly reactive and act as a potent biocide and antiseptic, as they are highly toxic to pathogens. However, ionic silver is not stable.

Nano silver is the newest variant. This is metallic silver, in tiny particles, usually around 1 nanometer in size, with a powerful electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic charge at the interface of the silver particle and the medium in which it “floats” is called zeta potential. A high zeta potential guarantees a stable, safe and highly effective silver product with a long shelf life. It is therefore good to ask the supplier about this.

Circular metallic silver particles below 10 nm in size have also been shown to have the most potent biocidal properties, without affecting healthy cells.

Ppm, particle size and colour

Ppm stands for parts per million, and is an adopted standard that actually equates to mg per litre. Many people think, “The more ppm, the better.” This is a major misunderstanding! The effectiveness of silver mainly depends on its shape and particle size.

For comparison: When you put 10 coffee beans in a glass of hot water, you don’t have coffee yet. When you smash those same beans into pieces, you just have a weak decoction. Only when you grind the beans into powder with a special device and then run hot water through this powder with a special pressure do you have a good quality coffee.

The smaller the coffee particles, the better the result. So it is with silver and other nano minerals. The smaller the particles, the easier they are to “dissolve” and be transported anywhere to do their work. Moreover, by making small particles with the same amount of silver, you have many more particles or “soldiers” for your body.

The colour of a good quality colloidal silver should always be transparent. Particles smaller than 20 nm cannot reflect colour, according to the Thyndall effect. When your silver water is yellow or blue, the particles are many times larger and therefore many times less effective and perhaps even toxic. Silver can also turn yellow due to oxidation. In our opinion, this is also not desirable for internal use.

Nano silver particles can attach to the surface membrane of disease-causing bacteria and other pathogens and block their oxygen supply, causing them to die. They can also, if small enough and highly charged enough, penetrate a bacterium or virus, destroy important proteins such as glycoproteins, RNA and DNA, causing reproduction to stop and the virus or bacterium to die. Yeasts and molds are also neutralized by silver in these and other ways [4,5,9,15,18].

Several studies confirm what Dr. Becker already said in the 1970s: silver induces de-differentiation of cells, which can then form back into stem cells. Stem cells can take any desired shape, thereby promoting healing [15,17].

This means that silver is not only effective as a biocide and antiseptic, but also actively initiates healing.

Various studies show that nano silver particles inhibit the growth of certain types of cancer cells and stimulate apoptosis (cancer cell suicide), without affecting healthy cells. Also Dr. Becker and many other physicians like Dr. Nordstrom of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden described the beneficial effect of silver against cancer decades ago. Possible explanations for this were the strengthening of the immune system and the influence on stem cells. The researchers are still unclear exactly how it works. According to oncologist and scientist Dr. Gary Smith, cancer cells cannot de-differentiate without silver, causing them to continue to grow [11,12,15].

Several studies have shown that silver ions neutralize bacteria such as gram-negative Escherichia Coli bacteria and gram-positive Staphylococcus Aureus (including MRSA) by loosening the cytoplasm from the membrane and inactivating the protein in the cell. The DNA in question lost its ability to replicate. Different temperatures and PH values ​​made no difference [4,9,18].

American research, which was interestingly denied at the time of the Ebola outbreak, suggested that silver nanoparticles were able to neutralize hemorrhagic fever viruses, including Ebola, in cells by inhibiting gene expression and reproduction of the virus. fuses. For the effectiveness of the silver treatment, it was important that the silver was either used preventively or was ingested within a few hours after contamination.

The researchers also discovered that an enzymatic protein called Cathepsin plays an essential role in the replication of the Ebola virus. Silver nanoparticles undermine the activity of cathepsin, limiting viral replication within the cell and subsequent spread of the virus.

Extremely interesting here is that it was found that concentrations of only 10 ppm seemed to work better than concentrations of 25 or 50 ppm. The smallest silver particles turned out to be much more effective than the larger silver particles. This once again confirms that the particle size is much more important than the ppm (mg /liter) [13,18].

In a two-year study in subjects with chronic recurring respiratory and ENT complaints, usually caused by viruses, respiratory infections did not occur and sinus complaints disappeared within 1 to 2 weeks when 1 to 6 tablets of nano silver were consumed daily. Interestingly, unexpected observations of increased mental alertness, more energy and improved vision for near and far vision were also reported [8].

Silver inhibits candida and other yeasts and fungi as well as the biofilm. A number of studies showed that silver was taken up by spores of fungi, after which the germination of these fungi was completely inhibited within 1 minute [16,18,19].

The “zombies effect” is also very interesting. In 2015, Scientific Reports published that bacteria killed by silver, before being cleared by the immune system, could kill other living pathogenic bacteria! Once killed, the pathogenic bacteria themselves become a biocidal agent for their fellow animals due to the silver. This makes silver not only a biocide and antiseptic that can do its job over and over again until it is excreted, but it also increases its own army [14].

In addition to its biocidal effect, silver also has a restorative capacity on tissues such as skin, gums and bone. (Experimental) research shows accelerated bone growth after bone fractures. This property also appeared to apply to other body tissues. Silver also accelerates the recovery of skin cells in wounds and skin infections. For this reason, Silver is widely used in the treatment of burns. It also ensures less scar tissue.

Shampoos, plasters, creams and sportswear are enriched with silver for an antibacterial effect and faster skin recovery.

American researchers, looking for an effective remedy against Ebola and related viruses, found that nano silver is effective against all viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever (fever with bleeding). They also discovered that nano silver was especially effective when taken preventively or in the first hours after the infection.

Nowadays, silver is also used to stain cells, after which a diagnosis can be made for, for example, neuropathic conditions. Silver is used in medical devices such as pacemakers and artificial hips to prevent bacterial growth in the body.

Circular nano clusters most effective

In 2005, J.R. Morones J.L. Elechiguerra JL showed that only metallic silver colloids smaller than 10 nm were able to adhere and subsequently penetrate the gram-negative bacteria, which were inoculated onto agar plates (seeded on nutrient medium). They reported that these silver nanoclusters were circular. The overall effect of the metallic silver nanoparticles was different from the effect of silver ions, which mainly occurred on the surface of the membrane and induced a protective mechanism in the bacteria. The metallic silver nanoclusters did not induce this protective mechanism and were able to penetrate into the bacteria and subsequently disrupt functions such as permeability, replication and respiration [8].

Historical and contemporary uses of silver

Silver coins, cutlery and dishes have been used since ancient times as a natural antibiotic and preservative for food and drinks. The ancient Greeks and Romans as well as the ancient Chinese boiled silver and gold coins with their diet to promote their health. The first cowboys, vaqueros, who spent long periods of time away from home in Spain and Mexico to herd cattle, used silver coins around 1600 to keep milk and other foods fresh for longer. They also pressed the silver onto their wounds to protect themselves from bacterial infections. The nobility also used silver tableware to keep diseases at bay. There was one disadvantage: the relatively large silver particles that they ingested from porous tableware could accumulate in tissues, which, under the influence of sunlight, could cause a blue-gray discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes, called argyria. Although argyria is not toxic, it is an aesthetically annoying condition that earned the nobility the term “blue blood.”

Improving quality

Colloidal silver was discovered at the end of the 19th century. A form of silver in which super small particles remained “floating” in water due to their electromagnetic field.

Until then, the silver was still mechanically ground into small particles and added to water. To keep the product stable and in suspension, silver salts were used, proteins or a dispersing agent were added. This made silver products of that time less effective and safe than they are today. However, great health-promoting results have already been achieved.

In 1893, Carl von Nägeli discovered the “oligodynamic effect”. The phenomenon whereby metals such as silver, copper and tin, even in very small doses, have powerful biocidal properties when they consist of extremely small particles. Nägeli determined that oligodynamic silver (nano particles) was already effective at less than 5ppm (5 milligrams per liter). You needed much less of these nano particles for the same effect, which virtually eliminated the chance of any side effects. Nägeli’s research led to improvements in technology, using nano particles for many antiseptic, medicinal applications. However, it took several years until completely safe and very powerful silver products came onto the market without any side effects.
Fortunately, through the dedication of passionate producers, we can now enjoy the positive effect of silver completely safely!

Well-known reference books on colloidal silver

Dr. Paul Farber wrote a book on colloidal silver in the last century, after curing himself of Lyme disease and an additional fungal infection (Candida) using colloidal silver. In his book ‘Micro Silver Bullet’, Dr. Farber said: “Research has shown that colloidal silver has been successfully used in many diseases caused by up to 650 different pathogens, including acne, rosacea, all kinds of allergies, athlete’s foot, parasites in the blood, corneal inflammation, Lyme disease, Malaria, meningitis, pneumonia, psoriasis, shingles, all types of viruses, warts, whooping cough, HPV virus, AIDS and the MRSA bacteria. **Dr. Josef Pies’ book: “Colloidal Silver- A Natural Antibiotic” explains how colloidal silver supports our immune system. “In the US, colloidal silver has had a comeback and interest in this effective agent in the treatment of infectious diseases is also growing in Europe.” However, silver can be used much more widely to support the immune system, as a general detox or powerful anti-inflammatory in eye infections or painful gums, both in the short and longer term.

Current legislation does not allow many supplements to state what they are for on the packaging. Sometimes, as with silver water, it may not even be stated that it is for internal use. This would be for consumer safety. Although it is good that there is a restriction on the marketing of all kinds of products without proper substantiation, for many products it unjustifiably causes a lot of confusion and lack of information for the consumer and expert. This limits our search for alternative drugs to pharmaceuticals that sometimes only partially help or have many side effects.


In 2002, EFSA, the European Food Safety Administration, was established, the European public body responsible for the safety of food and medicines. They determine, inter alia, the safety of food additives, agricultural poisons and the ingredients of food supplements. They decide which foods, nutrients and statements about food (substances) are allowed. They also determine whether the scientific basis for these substances is considered ‘relevant’ or not. That is not determined by independent scientists.

EFSA was created to ensure the health and well-being of Europeans. In practice, however, EFSA appears to have been discredited many times for conflicts of interest. EFSA members often come from the pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries, such as Monsanto and Bayer. For example, the approval of the toxic sweetener aspartame seems to be based solely on the study conducted by the actual producer of aspartame i.e. Monsanto, despite the abundance of reports and complaints that showed the dangers of aspartame. (Source: ‘Deadly lies, doctors and patients deceived’ by C.F. van der Horst.) The Codex Alimentarius is a global advisory committee, whose guidelines are implemented as legislation in practice, including by EFSA. The Codex has been around since the 1960s and has ensured that the industry determines what we can and cannot eat, what ingredients can be used and what advertisements and claims can be made. Although this initially sounds positive, and perhaps was also intended to be positive, it seems that here too financial considerations are (or have been) predominant in some decisions. It is well known that foods have been labelled as healthy that are not so at all and there is a major lack of clear and open information about the majority of the foods we buy in supermarkets. The only ones who benefit from this are suppliers of cheap food.

Since The Codex Alimentarius introduced the ‘Codex Guideline on Vitamin and Mineral Food Supplements’, it has also been made more difficult for consumers to choose natural medicines and dietary supplements that can work both preventively and curatively (medicinally) powerfully. The Codex Alimentarius and EFSA also seem to mutually influence each other and have shown on several occasions that they adopt each other’s directives. They apply the principle that ‘anything that is not expressly permitted can suddenly be prohibited’. And so it happened with, among other things, colloidal silver water. Here, too, clear, open information is lacking. Which industry benefits from this? And how does it affect the general public, us?

For more information on the safety of Nano Silver, see the silver and safety report.

Fortunately, there are objective sources of information to be found. We try to contribute to this as much and as accurately as possible. Provide yourself with good information and decide for yourself how you want to promote your health.

Watch the webinar about Nano Silver here


  1. http://www.silver-colloids.com/Book/SilverColloids-s.pdf
  2. Ions, Atoms and Charged Particles, By Francis S. Key and George Maass, PhD
  3. An In-depth History of Silver, medical uses of colloidal silver through the ages, Eric J Rentz, Do, MSc.
  4. Antibacterial Activity of Silver-nanoparticles Against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, Korean J. Microbiol. Vol. 39, No. 1, 77–85 (2011)
  5. Viral Pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Oligodynamic Ag+for Direct Immune Intervention, Renz,
  6. Silver Enhances Antibiotic Activity Against Gram-negative Bacteria, Ruben Morones-Ramirez,#1,4Jonathan A. Winkler,#1,2 Catherine S. Spina,3,4 and James J. Collins1,2,3,4,*, sep 2012
  7. A Pharmacological and Toxicological Profile of Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent in Medical Devices, Alan B.G. Lansdown
  8. Clinical Applications of Gold and Silver Nanocolloids, Guy E Abraham, MD
  9. Feng OL, Wu J, et al“A Mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.”J Biomed Mater Res, 2000; 52:662-668.
  10. https://www.mddionline.com/role-antimicrobial-silver-nanotechnology
  11. Anti-tumor Activity of Silver Nanoparticles in Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites Tumor Model, Department of Biotechnology, Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, at KalasalingamUniversity in India, 2010
  12. Antitumor activity of colloidal silver on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, J.Excp, clinical cancer Res, 16 nov. 2010
  13. fever viruses Novel Nanotechnology-Based Antiviral Agents: Janice Speshock, Ph.D. Saber Hussain, Ph.D. Applied Biotechnology Branch 711th Human Performance Wing Air Force Research Laboratory
  14. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the zombies-effect, Racheli ben Knaz, Wakslak, Rami Pedahzur & David, avnir, scientific reports, 23 april, 2015
  15. Publicatie: Colloidaal zilver, een wonderbaarlijk middel. Marvin Lee Robey
  16. Fungicides, Toxic Action of Metal Ions to Fungus Spores, L. P. MillerS. E. A. McCallanJ. Agric. Food Chem, 1957
  17. Induced dedifferentiation: a possible alternative to embryonic stem cell transplants. NeuroRehabilitation. 2002;17(1):23-31.
  18. Adviesrapport nanozilver, in opdracht van Vereniging Leefmilieu, Anne Dullemeijer, Leon Munting, Guus Reyngoud en Lisa Spronck, 2011
  19. http://thesilveredge.com/study-antifungal-effect-against-adhered-cells-and-biofilms-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata.shtml#.WcKqiPNJbIU